The technology of growing the yellow poppy – Glaucium flavum Cr.

The yellow poppy is considered one of the most promising medicinal species, due to the presence of some alkaloids in all parts of the plant, the most important of which is glycine (0.6 – 0.8%). It has a therapeutic effect similar to codeine (anti-aging, expectorant).

culture site
Biological requirements and regional location
Yellow poppy can be grown as an annual or perennial, keeping it in culture for 3 years. It is a species that grows well in temperate climates and withstands winter, especially in winter when the ground is covered with snow. Yellow poppy grows well in fertile, loose and organized soils as chernozems.
Heavy, cold and excessively wet soils are not indicated, since the poppy does not tolerate puddles. This promotes rotting of the plant, which results in many gaps in the crop.
Taking into account the biological characteristics of the species, it is recommended to locate it in the southwest of the country, in the Bergan plain and the Oltenia plain.

Place in crop rotation
Yellow poppy after pre-disinfection of the soil should be planted early, so that the soil can be prepared in good condition. It is recommended to grow after cereals, legumes or corn for fodder. If it is grown as a perennial species, then it is laid out from the crop. The culture will return to the same place after 4-5 years.

Fertilizer use
When determining the need for fertilizers, the nature of the previous plant and the natural fertility of the soil will be taken into account. Fertilizing with phosphorous – phosphorous fertilizers alone do not contribute to an increase in lawn yield, but have a positive effect on plant growth, balancing the action of other fertilizers.
Optimal doses are 45-60 kg / ha. Effective Material.
Potassium fertilization – potassium does not significantly affect the yield or quality of plant raw materials, but contributes to balancing the action of other substances, which is why it will be given only on soils poor in this element, in the amount of 40-60 kg ./ha. Effective Material. Nitrogen fertilization – Nitrogen favorably affects the growth and development of plants, increasing lawn production. At the same time, nitrogen is an element that is part of the alkaloids. Nitrogen is used in the amount of 80-100 kg / ha, and in higher doses it sensitizes plants from diseases.
Fertilizers containing phosphorous and potassium are given in the fall under plowing, and those containing nitrogen at the end of winter or in portions, half the amount in the spring, and the rest during the growing season, at the first work with the farmer.
The crop is fertilized in the following years depending on the state of the vegetation cover and the type of soil on which it is located.

soil works
Basic work – after harvesting the previous plant, the soil is plowed to a depth of 28-30 cm, if there is sufficient moisture in the soil to perform good-quality work.
If the soil is dry, work the disc into the aggregate with an adjustable angle harrow and plow when the soil is wet enough to do a good job.
Prepare germination bed – the yellow poppy contains very small seeds, which must be sown superficially. Due to this, careful preparation of the germination bed is necessary. The soil must be leveled, crushed and compacted well. For this purpose, a collector and a swivel ring will be used.

sowing
Sowing season – yellow poppy is preferably planted in winter or spring.
Seed standard – the optimal amount of seeds is 3-4 kg / ha, depending on the cultural value of the seeds and the degree of soil preparation. The optimum density is 65-72 plants / m2. Sowing distance – the yellow poppy is planted at a distance of 50-62.5 cm, depending on the duration of planting the crop (2-3 years) and planting conditions (irrigated or non-irrigated)
Sowing depth – the yellow poppy should be planted shallowly, to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. On light soils or in years with dry springs, the depth of sowing will be 1.5-2 cm. If planted deeper, the percentage of plants will be less than usual.

maintenance
In the first year of vegetation, the intervals between the rows are made mechanically to a depth of 4-5 cm, providing the plantings with protective tablets. Yellow poppy is sensitive to weeding in the first month after emergence, until a rosette of basal leaves has formed. Timely control of weeds ensures an intensive growth of the rose, which, as it grows, covers the soil and prevents the growth of weeds. After harvesting the plants, pruning should be carried out with the aim of loosening the soil, creating favorable conditions for the formation of the second crop.
In the fall, the plants are gently pruned to protect them from excess water and frost. The yellow poppy should enter the rose stage in winter, consisting of 6-8 leaves.
In the second year of vegetation, with the onset of vegetation in plants, manual weeding is carried out. The work is repeated 1-2 times until harvesting and it is mandatory after each harvest work to loosen the soil and stimulate the plants to grow.
If the crop is in good vegetative condition, without a lot of gaps, it can be preserved in the third year, carrying out the same maintenance work as in the previous year. Crop Herbicides – Total herbicides and gram-negatives will be used to chemically control weeds.

Diseases and pests and their control
The most common disease in growing yellow poppies is root rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). The disease occurs frequently since the second year of vegetation. The attack on the roots and at the base of the stem is manifested in the form of wet brown spots that expand, causing rotting of the tissues.
In order to prevent attack, it is recommended to observe agro-phyto-measures (proper crop rotation, avoidance of low and wet soils, use of healthy seeds) and cultural hygiene measures.
Among the pests, the species Entomoscelis saccra has a high possibility of damage, which in recent years has caused a fairly high degree of attack. The attack is caused by both adults and larvae.
It bears fruit for the skeleton of the tongue of the leaves, as well as thickened veins, flower buds and capsules in the composition. At first, the attack manifests itself in the hearths, and later spreads, possibly endangering the culture.
To control the pest, it is recommended to carry out two treatments, the first on adults and the second on larvae and adults of the new generation.

Collection
In the yellow poppy, the raw material of the plant is represented by the whole plant. The grass is harvested 2-3 times a year, depending on the year of vegetation of the crop.
In the first year, two crops of non-irrigated and three irrigated crops were obtained. In the following years, three crops are obtained, the plants begin to grow in early spring.
During the growing season, weed yield and alkaloid content vary greatly depending on the Phenopian phase, the change of meteorological factors and the year of growth of the crop.
Harvest time – The optimal time to harvest is the time between mass flowering and the onset of silica formation. During this period, the production of grass and the content of glycine reach the highest values. During the day, the highest content is recorded in the morning, in the early hours of the day.

Drying and conditioning
The grass loaded in the transport is pressed and not left in the trailer for more than 3-4 hours, because it heats up, darkens and reduces quality, and the alkaline content decreases by half.
The cut grass is transferred as quickly as possible to dryers or to well-ventilated areas, protected from rain, where they are spread out in a thin layer. Under natural conditions, only the first crop can be dried. In the dryer, the drying temperature should be 60-80 ° C, and the drying time is 10-12 hours.
To facilitate the extraction of glycine, dry grass can be divided into pieces 4-8 cm long. The drying yield is 5-7: 1, depending on the growing conditions, climatic conditions of the year and the time of harvest of the plants (those from irrigated crops and those harvested in the fall have a higher water content).
The yield of grass that can be achieved varies with different growing conditions and year of vegetation. In the first year of cultivation, 1-2 t / ha can be achieved. Dry grass, and in the second year, when the production capacity is maximum, 2-3 tons/ha is achieved.
Dried grass is loaded into thin cloth mattresses and stored in dry rooms. During the period of harvesting, drying and packing, it will be taken into account that all the leaves on the plant will be restored, since siliceous leaves are the richest in glycine and present in large quantities, which raises the quality of vegetable raw materials.

Victor Vătămanu

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