Groove farming technology

Julia comes from the spontaneous type Brassica rupenstris, also found in the Mediterranean region. It has been cultivated since ancient times and has the same distribution area as cabbage. It is cultivated in important areas of Western and Central European countries, Japan, America, etc.
In Romania it meets favorable conditions in all provinces, but it is grown in small areas. It is grown more in Transylvania, girls, around major cities, and in the past decades it has spread in greenhouses.

Food and economic importance
The thick stem is consumed from the groove. With a good storage capacity, it can be consumed fresh throughout the fall and winter seasons. It is high in nutrients, minerals and vitamins. It contains 2.1% protein, 61 mg vitamin C, and an energy value of 70 calories.

Botanical and biological properties in relation to technology
Julia is a biennial plant. In the first year, the edible part is formed, represented by the thickened stems and leaves, and in the second year the flowering stems and seeds.
After eruption, the root is centered, but later branches and becomes fibrous. The roots do not penetrate deep into the soil.
Leaves are long petioled, with deeply serrated tongue edges, green or purple, depending on the cultivar.
The thickened (tuberous) stem, which is also called the fruit stem, has a flat-spherical or oval shape, has different dimensions depending on the variety, is white, green or shades of purple. Stem thickening occurs from the bottom up, which is why the bottom is sometimes woody, especially in drought conditions.
In the second year, Julia gives off flowering stems and flowers, forming fruits and seeds.
The flower stem is 1.2 meters high. The flowers are small, type 4, with a yellow corolla. Allogeneic insemination. The fruit is a plate containing 5-6 seeds. The seeds are larger than white cabbage. They are globose in shape, with two very pronounced grooves. The weight of 1000 seeds is 4.5-5.1 grams. The germination capacity is 70-90% and is kept for 4 years.
It was noticed that if the growth tip is damaged for various reasons, 3 thick bouquet-shaped stems can form. Some cultivars form new, edible organs from the axillary buds after harvest.

environmental requirements
Heat requirements are low, similar to those of white cabbage. They have high light requirements, especially in the seedling stage. Light-producing seedlings are elongated with low density and do not form a thickening of the stem. Julia should grow in a shaded area. During the period of prolonged fog (the state of greenhouse crops in winter), plants grow without forming a thick stem.
The grooves are demanding for the water regime of the soil. In dry areas, if rational watering is not applied, the plants quickly age and the thick stem becomes woody. After planting, a moisture content of 75-80% of IUA (active moisture range) in the soil should be ensured. The best soils are medium, fertile, well-regulated soil with a pH of 7.0.

seagull farming technology
Grooves are planted in the field, solariums, low tunnels and greenhouses.

Early crop in the field
Good precursors are solano fruits, pumpkins, bulbs, pods, etc.
The soil is prepared in the same way as the early white cabbage.
Early varieties called grooves are used in early culture. Sowing is carried out in order to produce seedlings between February 5-10. The amount of seeds is 300 g / ha. The seedlings are transplanted into nutrient cubes 5x5x5 cms. The seedlings are planted between March 25 and April 10. On the raised layer at 104 cm, 4 rows of 25 cm are planted, 1 centimeter at 25 cm. In unformed ground, they are planted in strips of 4 rows at 30 cm, respectively at 25 cm, between strips at 60 cm. The same works apply to early cabbage.
The collar is harvested in stages, by plucking, at the stage of which the diameter of the thickened stem reaches 5-7 cm. To heal, remove the stem part below the thickest part and keep the leaves, they are tied in three pieces and used as ties. Production 10-15 tons / hectare.

Autumn culture in the field
This technique is similar to that used for autumn cabbage. It is planted as a cascading plant after early potatoes, spinach, lettuce, peas, etc. Seedlings are produced on grooves in the field, and are not repeated. Depending on the climatic zone, they are sown throughout May. Use 300 grams of seeds per 1 hectare.
Sowing takes place between June 5 and July 10. Plant two rows on a layer 60 cm and 30 cm high, respectively. The crop can also be created by sowing directly in the field according to the technology presented in late cabbage. Care work is carried out similar to that of autumn cabbage.
Harvesting is carried out with DLR dressing – throughout October, before the appearance of the first frost. In order to benefit, plants are formed. Remove the leaves and the part under the thickened stem by slicing. The production ranges from 30 to 40 tons / hectare.

Julia’s culture in plastic shelters
Solariums and low tunnels are used. Techniques for producing and growing seedlings are similar to those described for white cabbage and cauliflower. Early varieties are used.
Sowing is carried out between January 15-20, using 400-500 grams of seeds per hectare. Seedlings should be transplanted into nutritious nests 5x5x5 cms. The solariums are properly prepared, the covering is made at least 6-8 days before planting. Sowing of seedlings is carried out between March 20-25. They are planted in segments of 7 rows, the distance between the rows is 25 cm, and in turn, also 25 cm. In the associated culture it is grown between the basic rows as tomatoes.
In the case of low tunnels, they are planted in 30 cm x 25 cm strips, 3 rows, and 80 cm between strips. After planting, low tunnels are installed. Bulbs can be protected with thin foil, without a support system, which are placed directly on the seedlings, for 28 days after planting, after which they are removed from the crop. Harvesting begins after May 15, and capitalization can be carried out in the form of links. Production 12-15 tons / ha.

Cultivation of furrows in greenhouses
The cuttings are grown in greenhouses to reduce energy consumption. Three types of crops are practiced in industrial block-type greenhouses: intermediate or prospective cultivation (compared to the main crop of tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers); Basic (main) culture and associated culture.
For the expected crop, sowing takes place between October 1 and 10, the primary crop between November 1 and 10, and the companion crop between November 15 and 29. 400-500 grams of seeds are used per 1 hectare.
Sowing of seedlings takes place on different calendar dates, depending on the type of crop, as follows: between November 15 and 20 for the advanced crop, between December 20 and January 10 for the primary crop, and between January 10 and 15 for the companion crop.
For projected and basic planting, 12 rows are planted in plots, according to the scheme 25 x 20 cm, achieving a density of 100,000 plants / ha.
For the tied crop, the number of rows is adapted to the base crop, planting at a distance of 25 cm between rows and 20 cm for each row.
Harvest in early sowing takes place from January 10 to February 20, and in staple and tied crops between March 15 and April 30. Production 12-15 t/ha for the advanced crop, 20-25 t/ha for the primary crop and 8-10 t/ha for the companion crop.

Nursery culture in nurseries
Necklaces make good use of conditions in nurseries. This technique is similar to the cauliflower technique. In the case of pure crops, planting is carried out between February 10 and 25, and in combined sowing between February 15 and March 15, according to the scheme 25 by 25 cm, that is, a 24-wire frame. A yield of 12-15 tons / ha was obtained.

Victor Vătămanu

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