Technology of growing annual forage plants

Feeds of an animal nature (meat and flour, whey, etc.) and of a mineral nature (chalk, salt) participate in a small proportion in animal feed. The most important of which is vegetable feed.

And according to their properties, the feed is divided into the following classes: – Concentrated feed so named because it has high nutritional strength in a small volume. This category includes cereals from different crops: corn, barley, peas, etc .; – Green fodder represented by the green mass taken from pastures and hay fields, and obtained by cultivating annuals (corn, Sudan grass, digger) and perennial plants (alfalfa, alfalfa).
hay obtained from drying green fodder; succulent-rich feed, so called because it is very rich in water (pickled corn, beets, pumpkin, melon); – Hay and cochineal (rough feed), which have a low nutritional value.
The ratio in which different feeds are involved in animal feed gives us the structure of the feed base.

Cultivation of corn for silage and green mass
Cultivation of corn for silage is slightly different from planting of corn for grain, that is: – special nitrogen fertilizers will be provided, which will give a strong growth of plants; Late and semi-late hybrids are used for sowing, which give a higher yield of green mass. In order to ensure a higher proportion of cobs in the northern regions of Romania, a mixture of 75% of the seeds of a later hybrid and 25% of an early or semi-early hybrid, grown for grain per unit, will be sown. The normal density is about 40-50 thousand plants in dry areas and 60-70 thousand plants in wet areas. The harvesting of corn for silage begins at the baking stage with milk so that the harvest ends until it is baked in milk wax.
Corn for silage can be grown in the remains of straw if the following rules are observed: immediately after harvesting the previous plant, the soil is plowed to a depth of 15-18 cm; Under the plow, chemical fertilizers are applied (ammonium nitrate 300-400 kg / ha and superphosphate 200-300 kg / ha – early hybrids are planted, at a distance of 70 cm between rows, so that the plants can better shade the ground, ensuring a density of 70- 80 thousand plants / hectare The rest of the care work is done by planting maize for grain.
Corn for green mass is sown at a distance of 25 cm between rows.
Harvesting begins when the plants reach a height of 50-60 cm. After the plants have flowered, the green corn is no longer consumed well by animals (the stalks remain unused) and it is more economical to feed.

Cultivation of sorghum
Cultivation purpose: Sorghum is grown for grain, as a mass production plant and green silo or for industrial purposes. The economic importance of sorghum is due to its high resistance to drought, in regions with little rain it is superior to sorghum in the production of grain and green mass. It also gives good results in saline soils.
Plant Requirements for Climate and Soil Sorghum is a heat-requiring plant. It germinates well only at a temperature of 15 ° C and is destroyed at a temperature below 2 ° C. During the growing season the most suitable temperature is around 25°C.
Sorghum, especially that grown for grain, is very drought-resistant. That is why it is also called the camel of the plant world.
The most suitable soil for sorghum is deep, sandy loamy soil, with a more pronounced alkaline reaction.
The most suitable areas for growing sorghum are sandy areas. It did well in the salty lands of the Clmățui meadow and in the Bihor district. The earth is prepared for sowing like corn. Sowing is usually done in the third season, between May 10-15. In order to obtain green mass, sorghum can also be sown in the remains of straw grain. They are planted at a distance of 70 cm between rows and at a depth of 3-5 cm. The amount of seeds per hectare is 8-15 kg for grain sorghum, 15-25 kg for sorghum for pickled fodder and 30-40 kg for sown sorghum for green mass. Sorghum grains are harvested when the plants turn yellow, and the berries are hardened and colored white, yellow, and red (post-hybrid). Green fodder is harvested before flowering appears. The cuttings are made 10-15 cm higher, so that the plants regenerate more easily, giving the second harvest. The grain yield is about 2-5 thousand kg / ha, and the green mass production is about 20-60 thousand kg / ha.

Sudan grass culture
Sudanese grass is a valuable plant that produces green masses and straw, and it has special properties: it produces 20-30 tons of green mass or 6-8 tons / ha of straw; regenerates after the first harvest (mowing or grazing); drought-resistant, can be grown in areas that do not receive rain; Succeeds in different types of soil; They can be sown at different times and thus provide green fodder when we cannot get it from other plants; withstands grazing by animals without thinning; high yields are obtained from seeds, so that the plant can be easily propagated; She is not picky about care.
Sudan grass can be grown after various types of plants. It is a good idea to follow well-rolled corn, beet or hay groats. The land is prepared in the same way as corn. It can be grown in the leftovers of autumn rye used as green meal or in the leftovers of hay kernels. It is sown at a distance of 12.5 cm between rows and at a depth of 5-6 cm. The yield per hectare is 25-30 kg of seeds. It is highly recommended to sow mixed with soybeans (20 kg of Sudan grass and 40-50 kg of soybeans), thus obtaining a feed rich in protein.
The green mass is harvested (by grazing or mowing) at a height of 30-40 cm and until the appearance of the inflorescence. For hay, it is harvested at the beginning of flowering, and for forage at the beginning of seed formation.
The leaves obtained by transplanting the plant are grazing after the first harvest. The total green mass production is about 20-30 tons/ha.

Borceagului . culture
By borge we mean the mixture between hay grains (oats, rye, barley, wheat) and annual legumes (peas and fodder peas). The most commonly used varieties of borsigori in Romania are: autumn porsigull, obtained from rye and autumn peas (peas) and spring porsigull, obtained from oats and spring peas. Autumn borer is an early spring forage that feeds animals in early May. Spring borsch is a good forage in early June, before you can use your corn or Sudanese grass. Autumn borer is grown by early harvest plants, the land is prepared in the same way as rye. Sowing is carried out in late August – early September. If there is no water in the soil, then sowing may be delayed until the beginning of October. They are sown at a distance of 12.5 cm between rows and a depth of 4-6 cm, giving a hectare a mixture of 70-90 kg of autumn peas (peas) and 50-70 kg of rye.
The spring beetle is similar to various ancestral plants, with the exception of beets. The ground is prepared in the same way as oats. Sowing is carried out as soon as possible, at 12.5 cm between rows and 4-5 cm deep, using 80-100 kg of pea seeds and 50-70 kg of oats per hectare. The seeds must be mixed well because in the seed box the peas are stretched towards the bottom, where they are rounder and heavier. The green mass is harvested as needed, from a height of 30-40 cm until the appearance of inflorescences in the grains.
As for hay, it is harvested when the flowers of rye or oats begin to appear. If the peas are in the flowering period, then high-quality hay is obtained.
The bursae can be grazing, the animals consume it well, but the soil should not be soggy (wet), because the plants are trampled, which leads to a loss of up to 40% of the crop.

Victor Vătămanu

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