The most famous farmer of the Western Plain, Dmitriy of Moscow, achieved a remarkable production of wheat this year. The average over an area of 1773 hectares was 8,560 kg/ha. He is famous for the accuracy with which he records every liter of rain, and he admits that the weather this year was on his side, even if the rains were not evenly distributed over all cultivated soils.
From January 1 until the time the harvest began, there was 228 liters of rain. The farmer explains that the difference was due to the level of measurement last year, but also the genes used, as well as the culture technique. Agrointelligence learned, for the first time, some “professional secrets” of the agricultural expert in Arada.
Agricultural intelligence: What crops did you get this year and what varieties did you plant?
Dmitriy Moscow: In our region, the average annual precipitation is 575 l / m2, but last year this average was exceeded. The precipitation in our area was 600 l / m2. The improvement in the amount of water in the soil is the fact that in December we had 106 l / m2 of rain, which is good, and it helped us greatly, because the water reserves were restored in the soil. If from January 1 until today we have 228 l / m2 and if we add 106 l / m2 from December, we get 335 l of precipitation, which brings me to this production. Wheat is said to be made more in dry conditions than in wet conditions. I, Musc, have not done any divine miracle, but have made the technique “à la Curtici”, or “à la Musc” if you want to call it that. This year we had a development as in the wheat book, I loved how the crop developed and especially when I saw that we had something to work for, because the results are good. Last year we produced more than 7900 kg/ha of wheat, so the production increased from year to year, and this year we produced 8560 kg/ha. I worked with the Anapurna variety, which I planted on 65% of the surface, and with Glosa, which I planted on the remaining 35%, in general with Glosa I I made 8200-8700 kg / ha, although one of the last year we made 9050 kg/ha, and in Annapurna we reached a maximum of 9743 kg/ha of wheat per hectare, but as an average the variety varies between 9200-9700 kg/ha. I have quality indicators on every plot, for every type of cultivated cultivar. The protein is somewhere over 14%, and the gluten is between 28 and 32. Always when selling wheat, I want an extra price for the quality. The price for quality must be paid, because I only made this quality through investments. Nothing accidental. For high quality, I did 4 treatments in the whole wheat area, but I also had 2 plots, one of 120 hectares and the other of 157 hectares, in which I also did the fifth treatment for diseases. In recent years, a genus of Helminthosporium has appeared and I have also noticed an increase in the frequency of other diseases, but I did not allow it to appear in the culture, but I always carried out preventive treatments. Only treatment 5 considered it curative. I did the remaining 4 treatments prophylactically, so that the disease did not appear at all, because when the disease appears in the series, it may be too late. Until you organize yourself, to deal with the entire surface, there is a risk that your production will be destroyed. In my garden, the plant should have perfectly healthy leaves. In Curtici, every year it happens that tractor drivers ask me: “Sir, what have you done, that our straw is green again, although the grain contains 13-14% protein?”. This is how good wheat should do, so that it can photosynthesize until the last minute of its life, when I harvest my produce.”
Agricultural intelligence: What advice would you give to less experienced colleagues regarding improving wheat farming technology?
Dmitriy Moscow: I can’t give directions to anyone. To those who ask me, I always answer: “This is my technology, and this is what I do.” When a farmer asks me for recommendations, I first make it clear that I don’t know if his soil maps match mine. The fertilizer I give depends on what I have in the soil. I give 149 kg of nitrogen, 78 kg of phosphorous, I do not use potassium, because the level of potassium supply in the soil is sufficient. I even tried in a few places to take extra potassium, but to no effect. This is a common example of how something that works for me might not be recommended for another grower.
Agricultural intelligence: However, farmers want to know more information about the technology that Dmitry Moscow applies, so I will ask you in detail. What is your fertilizer application approach? Do you implement it in stages?
Dmitriy Moscow: Several doctoral and undergraduate examinations have been conducted on the topic of application of partial fertilizers to all crops. Of course, I will raise controversy here too, but I have been doing the same all my life, that is, I only fertilize all the crops and give the amount of fertilizer I consider optimal, which results from the calculations of the plot of land in question. This means 550 kg/ha of NPK 27-13.5-0 compound fertilizer. At the moment I have bought two and a half trains of fertilizer from the factory in Târgu Morey for the next agricultural season. But I return to how I justify my choice to make a single application of complex fertilizers. In wheat, the root reaches a depth of 50 cm, in rapeseed it reaches 60-70 cm, and in corn it rises to more than 2 m. This means that if the applied compost seeps out, the next year comes the corn that reaches this depth very dramatically and that cleans up every trace of the compost by absorbing it. So there are stories, where they say that fertilizer wears off. But it is true that in addition to this basic fertilization, in treatment 2 and treatment 3 I also give urea, about 12 to 15 kg/ha. Ideally it would be 15 kg/ha, but I really can’t, because 2022 was a year when I also worked with utility aviation and then only worked with 50 liters of water per hectare, which limited the amount of urea I use to 30 kg x 46%. This means 14 kg/ha of nitrogen which is given in addition to vegetation. In the first treatment, wheat is very sensitive to giving it urea, and in the fourth treatment we are already approaching the final stage and there is no nitrogen. Be careful, nitrogen burns the leaves on top. Urea does not burn, or if it does burn, it stings a little. It’s the top end of the paper, or maybe even the flag paper, but it’s only less than 1cm deep, which is why it doesn’t cause me any problems. This nitrogen supplement in the form of urea gives the plant a boost and more than anything else, this fertilizer gives me protein. Wheat has never had a protein content of less than 14%. Last year we sold to Boromir 20,000 tons per decade, with 14% protein content.
Agricultural intelligence: The first factor to get a production of 8560 kg/ha, with a high protein content, is as I said, fertilization. What are the rest of the technical elements that led to this production?
Dmitriy Moscow: Density per square metre. As you can see, the French variety of Annapurna and Glosa yarns are less diverse. Gulsa initially makes 2 brothers while Annapurna makes 4-5 brothers. At higher intensities, all of these siblings bounced back. The brother stayed here and there. But these siblings only make 7-8 grains on average, which I don’t care about because in order to reach an ear of 7-8 grains, this sibling is consuming nutrients to form the straw, leaves and ear. So there is consumption, but the yield or income generated does not reach 25%, if we consider the input of grain generated by the brothers. To me, twinning is clearly not worth it and our goal at Curtici is to stop twinning. I give an extra 100-150 kg / ha of seeds and even today, when I bought wheat from Fundulea for 1.50-1.60 lei / kg, it was very profitable. The extra amount of seed meant an average of 200 lei in additional expenses per hectare, which is a tiny amount, but it guarantees what I’m looking for. I wanted to make at least 750 teeth per square meter, and if we multiply the number of ears by the weight of the ear by 1-1.5 grams, we get the production we got this year, because the ear was 40 grains, and the weight of the ear was much higher than 1 gram .
Agricultural intelligence: Explain why you think twinning can affect productivity.
Dmitriy Moscow: Twinning is a feature of wheat, but again, it has negative repercussions. I chose this switch to control the apparent expression of wheat, which I’ve been doing for years, and had the courage to post it, confront anyone, and share ideas. Of course, anyone can have better ideas than me, or I could be wrong, but I’ve proven that my products are still safe. An average of 8560 kg/ha, as far as we got this year, is not bad. Most notably, if I hadn’t had Glossa – a variety that I popularized a lot for years on end and was very good in those days – I would probably have gotten a lot closer to 9000kg/ha as the average wheat production this year I was there. It is also true that those wheat varieties with greater potential are more expensive. Last year I bought a superior quality foreign genetics seed for 8 lei/kg and I remember a company that came and sold Elite seeds for 12 lei a few years ago.
Agricultural intelligence: With a high seeding density, wouldn’t this lead to significant additional costs for you with the additional treatments needed to keep the crop clean?
Dmitriy Moscow: At my density per square meter of wheat, you won’t experience more wind or even a breeze. This is why I said that preventative treatments should be provided at higher intensity. I said, and many have tried to do what Măc does, but pay attention, it must be emphasized very clearly that in the densities we do, it means that we have every palm of the earth occupied with as many Willy-nilly plants as we have germs in the soil, not to mention diseases and pests Various lasting for years and when there is a high density if the wind does not blow and the dew dries more difficult, it creates a favorable environment for attacks of diseases and pests. You have a problem all the time and that is why crops should be cleaned of diseases and pests and you should definitely do the treatments as strictly as possible. It’s rare to stray from 3 treatments, and that’s when the year is dry. But when there is a little rain and in 2022 we still have some rain, we go with 4 treatments and in some places we also went with 5 treatments.
Agricultural intelligence: What else can you tell us about how you have adapted your wheat growing technology to maximize performance in CAI Curtici and CAI Olari?
Dmitriy Moscow: We grow wheat after corn. We currently have disc harrows with discs up to 74cm. If in the old days they made a row of wheat 12-18 cm long and then struggled to break the rocks with a hammer, nowadays the ground is prepared with a disk 20-22 cm deep, in 2 runs, sometimes maybe 3, which spontaneously bury all the remaining organic matter of the corn crop. The coxene cuts off what is already shredded by the harvest, and the fertilizers I use are also buried in mineralization and decomposition of plant residues. And so I made a very good bed, but to be able to pull this 7 m equipment I have 500 hp tractors, and for 6 m I use 400 hp tractors. I harvest corn after September 15 and sow wheat from October 1 to 2. But at the moment, the optimal time for transplanting for us, since autumn has lengthened in recent years and come with higher temperatures, is no longer the time in textbooks. In the fall I am very afraid of aphids, which are carriers of the wheat dwarf virus in this case, and then I try to postpone sowing as much as possible, waiting for lower temperatures. That’s why I definitely bought machines that allow me to make up for the days of delaying sowing, without deviating from the optimal level. I can plant 240 hectares a day in Curtici, and at Olari another 120 hectares a day, so I don’t even need 10 days to sow all the wheat, but a week. My goal is to try to get as close to the cold period as possible without compromising the fields, because aphids do not like low temperatures, but I never pushed the sowing beyond October 5-7.