Farmers’ techniques are recommended to reduce the impact of drought on crops. A guide to drought-fighting recommendations has been published by the Ministry of Agriculture, and the advice includes soil preparation work, as well as sowing, and the work currently underway on farms has been included in the Autumn Agricultural Campaign.
- Drought proof: plowing, uprooting
- Drought Guidance: Crop rotation is essential
- Anti-drying Instructions: Surface descaling up to a depth of 5 cm max.
- Anti-drying guide: The seeds used must be of good quality
- Drought proof: the optimal time to plant
- Drought control guide: How deep to seed
- The Anti-Dehydration Guide: What Density Looks Like
- Dehydration guide: How to apply fertilizer
- Drought control guide: Weeds must be kept under constant surveillance
- Drought control guidelines: Do not graze the crop
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADR) has recommended several solutions for farmers to be applied in seeding campaigns to get good yields per hectare even in drought conditions. Solutions for agricultural producers in the vegetable sector are presented in a guide published by the Minister of Agriculture Petri Dada, and contains many techniques that have been tested on farms and the most important rules that were the basis for obtaining good results are the conservation of water in the soil and the adaptation of the autumn crop rotation (cereals and rapeseed) with the peculiarities of the situation in the cultivation area, as well as the selection of varieties that are tolerant and/or drought tolerant.
Useful document: https://www.madr.ro/ghid-de-bune-practici-agricole.html
The Guide to Good Agricultural Practices on Climate Change Impacts was developed by MADR and contains recommendations for farmers battling severe drought. The aforementioned document stated that the drought has been present since the fall of last year and was intensified by the warm winter without rain. The groundwater table has recorded a significant decrease in soil depth, and no longer has the ability to ensure the capillary edge in the supply zone of the root system of crop plants, with direct negative effects on crops planted in autumn and significant on those crops. Planted in the spring.
Drought proof: plowing, uprooting
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development recommends eliminating as much as possible, in these conditions (no drought), plowing and soil work that leads to water loss, plowing or scratching only in special cases (the presence of large numbers of pests that overwinter in the surface layers or pathogens). particularly harmful).
Regarding soil water conservation, MADR recommends that farmers consider conservation crop creation techniques (renewable agriculture), such as:
- Minimal tillage
- Minimal Even – Strip-See
- direct sowing (“no-till”);
Any of these methods can be applied after weeding works that are carried out as soon as possible after the harvest of the previous plant or, if possible, simultaneously with the harvest of the previous crop.
Drought Guidance: Crop rotation is essential
For all autumn crops, under conditions of severe drought, crop rotation and crop rotation become secondary elements of crop formation. Due to the prolonged drought, rotation will not be possible in some areas due to the impossibility of preparing the land for sowing. Under these conditions, wheat is preferably sown after crops of peas, early potatoes, borschori, rapeseed and barley/orzoica, which have been cleared, limiting as far as possible the sowing in monoculture.
Spring crops (eg: corn, sunflower, soybean) can be taken into account as precursors if the rainfall regime returns to normal, taking into account the necessary adjustments in disease control (corn) and nutrition (sunflower).
In the case of canola, MADR recommends avoiding planting after cruciferous (mustard), sunflower, soybeans, beans and chickpeas, due to attack of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) or common pests. Monoculture will be completely avoided.
• In extreme cases, wheat can be placed after wheat (one year) with special protection measures against certain pathogens and pests.
• Barley can be grown after wheat.
Anti-drying Instructions: Surface descaling up to a depth of 5 cm max.
The Ministry of Agriculture recommends another important work: demarcation, which is carried out superficially (to a maximum depth of 5 cm) after or simultaneously with the harvest of the previous crop. In this way it is guaranteed:
• Breaking the surface capillaries of the soil to conserve water in the soil and reduce the phenomenon of water evaporation from the soil.
• partial incorporation of plant residues from residues to protect the soil (in order to avoid excessive heating of the soil);
• Germination of weed and weed seeds.
All these influences create the basic requirements for a high-quality germination bed that provides favorable conditions for seeds, uniform emergence of plants and normal development in the early stages of vegetation.
Anti-drying guide: The seeds used must be of good quality
It is recommended to use certified seeds with high germination rates and appropriately treated for a range of diseases and certain groups of pests. Varieties (or hybrids) with higher twinning ability, and possibly varieties with twinning ability in spring, will be used.
Drought proof: the optimal time to plant
The work will be carried out depending on the type of seeder used:
• In the case of seeders equipped with earth preparation systems, which are located in front of the sowing bodies, one enters directly into the sowing;
• In the case of conventional seeders, they will be planted simultaneously with another surface preparation of the ground made of any gravel capable of packing
Soil (at most) to the depth of sowing, if necessary, only if the soil is loose or weedy.
If drought persists, additional tillage will be avoided as much as possible so as not to lose water from the seed germination area. In the case of sowing capable of direct sowing (no-till), sowing will be done without mobilizing the soil.
Likewise, the sowing season is a technological link with great flexibility, when determining the moment taking into account soil moisture, the evolution of pest populations as vectors of diseases and especially viruses, the quality of the germ layer, and the evolution of the climate predicted also by the cultivated variety.
The recommendation regarding the sowing season is:
Planting grape seed: end of August – beginning of September.
Wheat crop: end of September until end of October.
Barley crop: the first decade of October.
In the case of creating vegetable carpets, it is recommended to plant them only in conditions of optimum humidity and with varieties adapted to the cold season.
Drought control guide: How deep to seed
Growers will determine the depth at which to plant the seeds, depending on the moisture in the soil. If this is not present, it will be planted superficially, so that, in the event of heavy rains, it can later take advantage of eventual rainfall and eliminate the risk of crust formation.
The Anti-Dehydration Guide: What Density Looks Like
MADR recommends adjusting densities according to the genes used, the time of sowing, the natural fertility of the soil and the production target. The ministry reminds that increasing the density of sowing, advancing in the optimal season, is not always an effective measure, but it must be taken into account in extreme cases, when the sowing season is exceeded.
Dehydration guide: How to apply fertilizer
It is recommended to apply topically complex fertilizers, if the sowing equipment allows, or before weeding work, so that their incorporation does not require additional soil work. It is recommended that potassium (K) not be lost from the formula.
The complex fertilizer composition should also be taken into account, and in the case of late sowing, it is preferable to use a fertilizer composition with a higher nitrogen (N) content.
Drought control guide: Weeds must be kept under constant surveillance
If there is some degree of weeding at the sowing date that requires intervention, then complete weeding will be done before sowing or immediately after sowing. The degree of weeding must be constantly monitored, which, among other things, has negative effects on the water supply of the soil.
Drought control guidelines: Do not graze the crop
Consider sowing in larger scales by alternate suspension from Coulter, and adjust seed density/rate for remaining seeds. This measure can
Help prevent seeding equipment clogging, reduce disease stress during the growing season, and prevent plant shedding.
It is also recommended to avoid rolling work after sowing as a separate work, even if the sowing is not equipped with such equipment. The rolling of the crop in this case may be the cause of crust formation in the event of subsequent sedimentation. Monitoring the emergence of plants for pest control is essential because the attacks can be insidious under the conditions of successive emergence.
Moreover, grazing of the crop should be avoided. In order to prepare the land for spring planting, surface work will also be carried out, if drought persists (disc, gruber, chisel). Any new technology can be adapted to the equipment on the farm. MADR recommends that different technology variants be tested in small areas to verify their effectiveness in the specific conditions of each farm.