Cultivation of tuberose: planting bulbs, care, propagation

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Tuberose – Polianthes tuberosa is an amazing flower, especially because of its fragrance. Growing tuberose, whether planting, removing, or storing bulbs, can cause problems, as can taking care of the fragile flower.

Tuberose or cypress has become a symbolic flower of Romania since 2020, when it became the first flower from Romania to be recognized at the European level.

Growing tuberose in a garden in Hogelag

tuberose culture

Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) is a flower that grows mainly in Transylvania in Transylvania. It is found in the gardens of old Saxon houses, and the municipality that changed the tradition of tuberose is Hogelag, from Sibiu Province.

As for the location of the land, tuberose is grown in sunny areas with high exposure to the sun, but also access to water sources for irrigation and with well-drained, nutrient-rich soil.

When tuberose blooms

Tuberose is a plant that blooms from July to October.

Tuberose light, soil and water requirements

Tuberose: soil, water and light requirements

Tuberose has a high requirement for soil, water and light.

Tuberose grows in sunny gardens protected from high winds, and needs moisture. Tuberose loves the heat.

During the winter, tuberose bulbs are stored at temperatures from 6-8 ° C to 18-20 ° C. The land chosen for this culture should be permeable and rich in humus.

Preparing the land for planting tuberose

The land for planting tuberose in the fall is prepared by deep plowing. The soil is fertilized with manure, and in the spring it is also used with mullein when cutting the soil or after planting bulbs, when laying manure on the soil as mulch.

tuberose cultivation

Preparing tuberose bulbs for planting

It is important to prepare tuberose bulbs before planting. Remove all diseased or damaged bulbs. Healthy bulbs are treated with fungicides a day or two before planting.

An old practice that many growers have abandoned is removing the rhizome from the base of the bulb. The process of cutting the bulbs with a knife is done a week or two before planting, after which the tuberose bulbs are kept in warm rooms (20-22 ° C) in order to inflate and heal (heal) the wound. Presumably, this tough rhizome will prevent the roots from starting. Opinions are divided. Others, on the contrary, claim that the rhizome contains large amounts of nutrients that will be taken up in the process of growing the stems.

When do you plant tuberose?

The tuberose is planted directly in the garden in April when temperatures warm up. Bulbs are sensitive to cold and freeze at 0 ° C, the leaves are immediately affected by frost.

To protect them and create more warmth, tuberose growers shield new crops with plastic tunnels.

Tuberose bulbs can also be transplanted into pots, as early as February to March, and placed in nurseries or greenhouses, at a temperature of 18-20 ° C and sufficient humidity. The bulbs will begin to grow, and at the end of April or May the plants will be taken to the garden.

Tuberose bulbs

How to grow tuberose bulbs

If the bulbs were stored during the winter in drier rooms and became dehydrated, it is recommended to place them in water a day before planting.

Before planting, the bulbs are separated from the bulbs by breaking them, and the roots are removed by crushing. It is not recommended to separate the follicles a few days before planting. If the operation is performed early, the place where the follicles and roots were separated will leave a scar. Thus, the bulbs enter the vegetation later.

Tuberose bulbs are planted in layers at distances of 10 cm per row and 15 between rows. The bulbs are planted in the same way, but at smaller distances between them.

Some growers place tuberose bulbs in grooves 1.2-1.4 meters high. The distance between the grooves is 50 cm and represents a track. The planting distances between the bulbs are 5-20 cm between the bulbs in a row.

The depth of planting tuberose bulbs should not be high. It starts from 3-4 cm and can reach 8 cm, depending on the degree of soil disintegration and the size of the bulbs.

When planting bulbs, some growers apply diluted bird droppings to the planting trench. The bulbs are not installed immediately, but only after shaking the newly fertilized soil, usually the next day.

tuberose care

tuberose care

Tuberose care is concerned above all with protecting plants from weeds. There are three other acts of nurturing tuberose culture:

Protect the tuberose from weeds. Keep the soil loose and remove weeds by weeding and weeding weeds, burdock mulch, slightly loosened leaves or chopped straw (this will ensure more heat, water and maintain soil structure)

Watering tuberose is necessary. Water the culture regularly and abundantly.

Fertilizer for tuberose

Fertilizing tuberose in vegetation by giving chemical fertilizers 1-2 times a month in the form of a solution with a concentration of 0.1-0.2% or solid (20-30 g / m2 ammonium nitrate + 50-60 g / m2 superphosphate + 30- 40 g / m 2 potassium sulfate.

Tuberose: diseases and pests

Tuberoses are susceptible to diseases such as downy mildew and pests such as red spider mites and thrips.

Tuberose blight is one of the most dangerous diseases and usually appears at the end of the crop. Interfering with fungicides.

The main pest of tuberose is the red spider mite. Attacked plants show white spots that increase in size. Over time, the leaf dries up and falls off.

Tuberoses are also attacked by aphids, the appearance of which is distinguished by droplets of honey that can be seen on plants. It is the ideal environment for the emergence of black fungi. Leaves become distorted and distorted. Moreover, aphids carry viruses and can completely endanger the plant.

It is difficult to notice the attack of thrips on tuberose at first. It becomes noticeable when the leaves become covered with dry cells, flowers and buds are distorted and the plant appears frozen. On the flowers, but also on the upper part of the leaves and in the places of feeding, green or black dots, silver spots or a striking appearance, or curvature appear.

Picking tuberose flowers

When is tuberose harvested?

Tuberose blooms from July to October. Tuberose is harvested when 2-4 flowers at the base of the inflorescence are well open, otherwise there is a risk that the buds will not open.

Tuberose flowers are harvested in the morning, when the opening of the flowers is minimal.

Flowers last better if the water in the vase is changed often or if preservatives such as magnesium sulfate, copper sulfate or aspirin-acetylsalicylic acid are used.

Forming tuberose bulbs

Tuberose bulbs are distinguished by their large size – more than 10 cm in circumference, heavy and slightly pear-shaped. Unlike tulips, the flowering tuberose bulb is not replaced by one that is relatively equal in size. The flower consumes it and its place remains empty, and the bulbs that are formed everywhere are of poor quality, compared to those planted in special plots intended for the production of tuberose bulbs. Therefore, with tuberose, we cannot talk about secondary production, with high-quality bulbs, in flowering spots, as happens in the case of tulip crops.

The presence of bulb plantings in the first, second and third year is absolutely necessary to achieve flowering bulbs, since tuberose is the most demanding from this point of view. In the process of forming new bulbs and bulbs, usually in tuberose, around the central bulb, 20-40 bulbs arise from the rhizome.

Pulling tuberose bulbs from the ground

Removing tuberose bulbs from the ground

Tuberose bulbs are removed from the ground in late autumn. They will clean the soil well and shorten the leaves to 2-3 cm. The bulbs that will be planted the following year are selected and left to dry either during the winter or before planting.

Storing tuberose bulbs in winter

Tuberose bulbs are stored in the winter under certain conditions: at temperatures of 8-10 ° C and high humidity (70-80%).

Flower bulbs are stored for 2-3 months at a temperature of 20-22 ° C and a relative humidity of 80-85%. In this case, the percentage of flowering can reach 100%.

The flowering of plants the following year largely depends on the size of the bulbs and the storage temperature. Many producers know this and store at least some large lamps in kitchens, where the listed conditions are usually fulfilled.

Bulb growth is carried out in separate batches, the distances and depth are reduced by a few centimeters. If we start from bulbs with a diameter of 1-2 cm, then it takes about 3 years to produce bulbs with a diameter of more than 4 cm, which will then be used in flower crops.

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