Pre-critical plants are those that clear the land early: annual legumes for grain, flax for fibre, early potatoes, canola, early hybrid corn or green masa, hemp for fibre, early sugar beets, etc.
It is not recommended to use other herbal cereals as a precursor due to the high sensitivity of fusarium wilt, nor is it recommended to plant in monocultures for the same reason.
The best results were obtained when the species were included in cycles of 3-4 years, with ancestors of the legume group, which leave large amounts of nitrogen in the soil and release the ground in time. Triticale is valued as a valuable precursor to any crop because of its speed when clearing the ground.
Considering that the current varieties cultivated in Romania have lower resistance to fall than wheat, due to the large size of the plants, the doses of fertilizers applied to the crop should be of moderate values and calculated according to the natural fertility of the soil.
In terms of soil work, the triticale has similar requirements to wheat or rye, requires loose soil in the surface layer, 15-20 cm, stable, well-groomed with water and nutrients.
Soil works are carried out according to the previous plant, the remaining plant residues and the condition of the soil water supply at the time of its implementation. The lack of water in the soil and the impossibility of achieving quality tillage leads to the situation when soil work is carried out exclusively with heavy harrows, the depth of which can reach 15-18 cm.
It is recommended to prepare seed beds using machines that mobilize the soil superficially, and as far as possible, the last work should be carried out perpendicular to the direction of sowing. These works are well carried out according to the species such as: sugar beet, potato or soybean.
By the large number of soil works applied for the preparation of the germ layer, especially in the areas where pediological dehydration is manifested, it was found that the structure and texture of the soil suffer, reducing its productive potential.
The seed and the seed
The quality of triticale seeds should be as high as possible, with values of physical purity of at least 98% and germination strength of at least 90%, thus ensuring superior beneficial value.
In order to prevent the occurrence of diseases during vegetation and to ensure plant immunity during the first 20-30 days of vegetation, it is recommended to treat the seeds before sowing with certain products, fungicides or fungicides, similar to those indicated in the autumn wheat sowing technology.
The optimal sowing time for triticale varies according to the planting region: from September 15 to October 1 for the cooler mountainous regions of Transylvania and the Subcarpathian hills of Oltenia, Montania and Moldova, and from October 1 to 10 for the warmer regions of the south and west of the country.
Sowing outside the optimum season, early or late, led to a decrease in yield, for the same reasons given to the wheat crop (reduced winter resistance, defective completion of the plant hardening stage, attack of pathogens or pests, reduced twinning, etc.)
The seeding area provided for a triticale crop is between 400 and 500 germination seeds/m², with corrections made in case the optimum season is exceeded up to 550 germinating seeds/m² to ensure the seed plot at harvest.
Seeding rate – varies by MMB and decimal between 230 and 280 kg/ha.
Sowing depth – between 4 and 7 cm. The triticale seed has the longest period of time and the greatest strength to penetrate the soil.
The distance between the rows is the same, as with all woolen grains, and is 12.5 cm. They can also be sown 15 cm between rows in seed-producing crops to provide plants with more food space.
The maintenance of cultural hygiene in the triticale crop is ensured by the application of preventive or curative measures.
For weed control, commercial products approved for the wheat crop will be used, and herbicides are selected according to the group of weeds present in the crop and their degree of development.
Triticale turned out to be more sensitive to the stress of the use of herbicides, therefore, in order to avoid the phenomenon of phytotoxicity, it is recommended to strictly monitor the period of application of the herbicide in relation to the fenofen phase of development of triticale plants.
Due to the high altitude, special attention should be paid to this crop of plant fall, which can also be due to errors in the application of the technological sequence: shallow sowing, one-sided fertilization with nitrogen or in large doses, large plant thickening, etc.
To prevent this phenomenon, treatments are applied in the vegetation, when the plants reach the beginning of the stage of straw formation. Emerging irrigations in dry autumn, at rates of 300-400 m3/ha, have proven to be very beneficial, with plants appearing uniformly in short periods of time.
During the growing season, 1-2 irrigations can be applied, depending on the precipitation regime of the region, to maintain the minimum ceiling at 50% IUA (active moisture range calculated at a depth of 0-50 cm)
Irrigation standards for vegetation will be 500-800 m³ / ha, depending on the water permeability of the soil.
Triticale is harvested when the grain is fully ripe, without exceeding this stage due to the high risk of vibration represented by the crop, with average losses due to vibration estimated at 300-400 kg/ha. The delay in harvesting is another major drawback – the appearance of grain sprouting in the ear, a phenomenon that occurs when rainfall occurs for a longer period of time during the harvest period.
To avoid these drawbacks, the triticale crop is harvested when the grain moisture reaches 16%.
Triticale granules are more sensitive to threshing, which requires fine-tuning of the harvester, correctly sizing the drum speed and the distance between the threshing and counter threshing.
The green mass is harvested at the end of April, when the plants can be fed directly into animal feed or for forage using electric mowers or mechanical mowers.